This research tackles the long-standing Combustion Synthesis problems of residual porosity and inhomogeneity from a new fundamental scientific standpoint. Specifically, the influence of powder and powder compact multi-scale design on the densification and homogenization mechanisms in combustion synthesis will be investigated. A fundamental understanding of the effects of crystallographic defect concentrations on the rapid synthesis and homogenization of carbon nanotube reinforced nanocomposites with or without external field will be established for materials that generate a liquid phase during the reaction. The research will fulfill a previously thought to be impossible task of producing full or near-full density homogeneous composites and nanocomposites via combustion synthesis without the application of external pressure or post processing heat treatments. Through in-depth characterization and mechanical properties investigations, the research will also establish the processing-microstructure-properties relations for these new nanomaterials.